Create Value Out of Waste

Waste generated in processing palm oil

The process of palm oil production generates high proportion of wastes.

A typical 45MT/hr mill running @ 20 hours/day generates;

  • FFB                   - 900MT/day
  • EFB                   - 25% of FFB (225MT/day)
  • POME cake       - 1.6% of FFB (14.4MT/day)
  • Boiler ash          - 0.2% of FFB (1.8MT/day)
  • Decanter cake   - 0.4% of FFB (3.6MT/day)
  • POME                - 60% of FFB (540m³/day)

Benefits of recycling palm oil wastes

Rich in minerals, it can be recycled for organic fertilizer, bringing about many values;

  • Reduce waste water load (10% POME active sludge use to mix with compost)
  • Save cost - by reducing chemical fertilizer utilisation;
  • Improve soil structure and moisture holding capacity;
  • Enhance growth and vigor of the crop;
  • Increase production and improve oil palm plantations capacity for sustainable cultivation;
  • Reduce plant pathogens and improve plant resistance to disease;
  • Eliminate odor from the solid waste;
  • Drying effect for the wed substrates such as POME cakes and decanter cake;
  • Zero burning and return nutrient and organic matter to soil.

4 stages of composting process

1 Pre-processing
  • Prepare activated microbial
  • Storage and metering facility for the EFB, POME cake, Decanter cake and Boiler ash
2 1st Stage High-Rate phase
  • High oxygen uptake rate
  • Thermophilic temperature 
  • High biodegradable solid reduction
3 2nd Stage Curing phase
  • Degradation of more stubborn organic 
  • Establishing lower temperature microbial population
4 Post - processing 
  • Screening process if require


Composting Process


How do you rate the quality of compost?

3 rating categories the CCQC Compost Maturity Index

  • Well curedcompost
  • Cured compost
  • Uncured compost 
  • Odorless
  • Odor production not likely
  • Odor likely
  • No potential toxicity
  • Limited toxicity potential
  • High toxicity 
  • No impact on soil
  • Minimal impact on soil Nitrogen
  • Significant impact on soil Nitrogen
  • No continued decomposition


Typical results of Bueco's composting solution:

C/N Ration: <20
Moisture Content: <50%
Nitrogen (N): 2.8%
Phosporus (P): 0.3%
Potassium (K): 1.4%

Immaturity of Compost causes


Compost maturity index

  • Samples must pass the Carbon/Nitrogen ratio(<25) before any tests
  • Results from Group A& B tests determine compost quality


Type of compost tunner

1.Front tunning

2.Side tunning


Comparison Table

Working data Unit Front turning Side Turning
Heap width m 3.6 1.07
Heap height m 1.6 3
Heap cross section at 45 degree 3.2 3.2
Turning capacity m³/h 1200 1200
Space in between pile mm 500-1000 0
Allowable height of the pile mm 50% of width 3000

Side Turner gives better value!

Composting Plant